The Easter Uprising
These differences were not to the fore in October The ordinary member of Sinn Fein and the ordinary person who voted for them did so because, again in the words of Kingsmill Moore,. It released a long suppressed desire for national realisation, national independence…the institution of an Irish republic, if possible and practical, was the simplest and most immediate way of achieving his desires. The major event that inspired the Sinn Fein organisation in and which brought many into its ranks was the anti-conscription campaign. There was a striking growth in membership of nationalist organisations: Sinn Fein had 1, registered clubs with a membership of , by the end of ; the Gaelic League also expanded from branches in to by ; and the membership of the Irish Volunteers and the IRB also grew.
The popular base existed to conduct an election campaign and from May a standing committee of Sinn Fein began planning an election strategy. Despite the difficulties created by the arrest of leading figures, the election campaign ran smoothly. A new impetus, almost a new direction, was given to it by the announcement of the end of I the World War on 11 November The principle of self-determination came to dominate all political discussion.
Self-determination had been an explicit or implicit aim behind Irish nationalist appeals for help after it was, after all, the basic demand of the separatist ideal. A year later, almost to the day, 11 June , a national appeal had been made by all parties to protest against conscription.
The Easter Uprising :: History Historical Ireland Essays
The ending of the war gave renewed prominence to this issue. It had an immediate and important effect on Labour Party policy. News of the peace changed their plans. Other speakers took up the theme; Sean T. These sentiments were contained in the subsequent election manifesto and provoked a police raid on Sinn Fein headquarters on 20 November.
Copies of the offending manifesto were seized and subjected to censorship. Nevertheless, the appeal of Sinn Fein and of self-determination carried the day. When the election results were announced on 28 December, it was evident that Sinn Fein had replaced the Irish Party as the largest party in Irish politics.
Self determination in practice Dail court at Westport, County Mayo. The franchise for the election had been greatly enlarged by the Representation of the People Act of in , , were on the register; in , 1,, The transition from Sinn Fein to Dail Eireann was efficiently arranged. Even before the results were announced, the.
The British reponse Black and Tans in action, 23 November Meetings were planned for 1 and 2 January. The initial business was conducted swiftly: the appointment of a speaker, Cathal Brugha, the appointment of clerks, and the calling of the roll. Twenty-nine names were recorded as present, but the attendance of Boland and Collins was incorrectly called to conceal their mission to rescue de Valera from jail.
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The first was read in Irish alone; the other three in Irish, French and English. No oath was administered on 21 January. I will support and defend the Irish Republic and the Government of the Irish Republic, which is Dail Eireann, against all enemies, foreign and domestic…. The Dail declared a Republic and sent three men to the Versailles peace talks to try to get this recognised internationally. The next full meeting of the Dail took place in April. This Dail set up courts all around the country, which became known as Sinn Fein Courts and Collins was given the task of raising money for the First Dail.
see The First Dail was declared illegal by the British government so all their meetings had to be held in secret locations around Dublin city. Despite all their difficulties this First Dail did manage to survive. The Civil war was caused by the Anglo-Irish Treaty of Fighting broke out in Dublin , which lasted one week. Then the fighting moved to Munster and huge numbers of Irishmen killed fellow Irishmen.
When war broke out in , De Valera and his Fianna Fail government decided that Ireland should be neutral. The government passed an Emergency Powers Act. Sean Lemass was put in charge of food supplies and very strict rationing and price controls were introduced. Every family was given a ration book. The IPP, despite having been the largest party in Ireland for forty years, had not fought a general election since ; in many parts of Ireland its organisation had decayed and was no longer capable of mounting an electoral challenge. Contemporary documents also suggest a degree of intimidation of opponents.
In the nine counties of Ulster, unionists polled a majority in four. Because twenty-five seats were uncontested under dubious circumstances, it has been difficult to determine what the actual support for the party was in the country. Lastly, emigration was difficult during the war, which meant that tens of thousands of young people were in Ireland who would not have been there under normal circumstances. Although the state was declared to be a republic, no provision was made for a head of state.
Tipperary had two county councils, so there were Northern Ireland a six-county region set up under the British Government of Ireland Act opted out, as the Treaty allowed. The reasons for the split were various, although partition was not one of them   — the IRA did not split in the new Northern Ireland and pro- and anti-treaty republicans there looked to IRA Chief of Staff and pro-treaty Michael Collins for leadership and weapons. Supporters of the treaty argued that it gave "freedom to achieve freedom". Within days of the election, the short and bitter Civil War erupted between the supporters of the Treaty and its opponents.
Cosgrave formed a new party, Cumann na nGaedheal. The conference instructed a joint committee of representatives from the two sections to arrange a basis for co-operation. That day it issued a statement declaring "the division within our ranks is a division of Republicans. Shortly afterward, Vice-President and de facto leader MacSwiney announced that the party simply did not have the funds to contest the second general election called that year , declaring "no true Irish citizen can vote for any of the other parties". John J O'Kelly had been elected president in place of de Valera and remained in this position until when Brian O'Higgins took over the leadership.
The party did not have a leader of the stature of Cosgrave or de Valera.
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Numbers attending the Ard Fheis had dropped to the mids and debates were mainly dominated with issues such as whether members should accept IRA war pensions from the government. Mary MacSwiney left in when members decided to accept the pensions. Margaret Buckley was president from to The party suffered with the introduction of internment during the Emergency. The "three Macs" believed that a political organisation was necessary to help rebuild the IRA. IRA members were instructed to join the organisation and a newspaper, United Irishman , was launched.
The party began to advocate a corporatist social policy inspired by the Papal Encyclicals of Pope Pius XI , with the aim of creating a Catholic state, and opposed parliamentary democracy, advocating its replacement with a form of government akin to Portugal 's Estado Novo , but rejected fascism as they considered a fascist state to be too secular and centralized. The re-organisation yielded fruit during the Border Campaign which was launched on 12 December The introduction of internment and the establishment of military tribunals hindered the IRA campaign and it was called off in Tomas MacGiolla was elected president in His presidency marked a significant shift towards the left.
The Wolfe Tone Directories were set up to encourage debate about policy. In his analysis, the primary obstacle to Irish unity was the continuing division between the Protestant and Catholic working classes. This they attributed to the 'divide and rule' policies of capitalism, whose interests a divided working class served. Military activity was seen as counterproductive since its effect was to further entrench the sectarian divisions. If the working classes could be united in class struggle to overthrow their common rulers, it was believed that a county socialist republic would be the inevitable outcome.
The party became involved in the Dublin Housing Action Committee , protests against ground-rent landlordism, and the co-operative movement. However abstentionism was also a dominant feature of debate. Matters were not helped by a report from the Garland Commission, a committee led by Sean Garland to investigate and caucus opinion about abstentionism, which favoured ending the policy.
Many were concerned about the downplaying of the role of the IRA.
The split, when it finally did come, arose over the playing down of the role of the IRA and its inability to adequately defend the nationalist population in Northern Ireland in the violent beginning to the Troubles. Traditional republicans and opponents of abstentionism formed the "Provisional" Army Council in December , after the split. This motion would only have required a simple majority. They refused to vote and withdrew from the meeting.